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The Saga of the Formation of Uttarakhand


Uttarakhand, located in the Himalayan region of India, is renowned for its natural beauty and cultural heritage. On November 9, 2000, it became a new state of the Indian Republic, separating from Uttar Pradesh. Its formation was the result of a long-term and intense people’s movement that spanned decades of struggle.

Historical Background

Uttarakhand, formerly known as Uttaranchal, has a distinguished history that dates back to ancient times. Nestled in the lap of the Himalayas, its geographical positioning has made it a place of meditation for yogis and seekers since ancient times. The region is referred to as Kedarkhand in the Puranas and is also known as Devbhoomi (Land of Gods). It has been a center of religious and spiritual significance, frequently mentioned in Hindu myths and legends.

Throughout history, Uttarakhand has been part of various dynasties and empires. During the Mahabharata era, it was considered one of the significant locales between the Pandavas and Kauravas. In the medieval period, it was under the rule of the Katyuri and Chand dynasties, who enriched the regional art and culture. The temples and architecture from these dynasties remain a significant part of Uttarakhand’s cultural heritage today.

During the British rule, Uttarakhand underwent transformations of a new era. The British officials developed this region as their summer capital and constructed several hill stations here. The natural beauty of Uttarakhand attracted the British and encouraged the development of tourism and tea plantations in the area. However, British policies also posed numerous social and economic challenges for the local people, which further fueled the demand for statehood later on.

Demand for Statehood

The demand for statehood in Uttarakhand was driven by various historical, economic, and social reasons. When the movement began in the 1960s, the main issue was regional inequality and developmental disparity. The people of Uttarakhand felt that the Uttar Pradesh government was not giving adequate attention to the development of their region. The mountainous terrain and remote areas of the region were deprived of basic facilities and services, which hindered economic development.

The movement gained momentum from various social organizations and the intellectual class of Uttarakhand, who framed the demand for statehood within a broader identity and rights framework. Key leaders of this movement included Indramani Badoni, Bacchi Singh Rawat, and Tara Chand Dobhal, who not only garnered local support but also raised the issue at the national level.

In 1994, the movement took a more aggressive turn. That year, a large demonstration held in Dehradun, which came to be celebrated as Revolution Day, saw the participation of thousands of people. The activists articulated their demands for a separate state of Uttarakhand more vocally, increasing the pressure on the Uttar Pradesh government and the central government.

Movement and Resistance

The Uttarakhand statehood movement gained momentum in the 1990s when activists raised their voices against the negligence and disregard of the Uttar Pradesh government. The primary issue was the lack of development opportunities and inadequate central facilities. The people of Uttarakhand believed that their region required special attention, which could only be possible with statehood. Consequently, various groups began to exert political and social pressure.

During the movement, several incidents occurred, notably the Rampur Tiraha firing in 1994, where many people were killed when the police opened fire on the demonstrators. This incident significantly turned the tide of the movement, bringing national focus to the issue of Uttarakhand. Following this event, the movement intensified and gained national support.

The leaders of the movement employed various strategies. They not only organized sit-ins, demonstrations, and rallies but were also actively involved in political lobbying. In this process, they reached out to several political parties and leaders who could support their cause. Thus, the Uttarakhand movement evolved into a complex political and social challenge, ultimately achieving success in securing statehood for the region.

Formation of the State

The success of the Uttarakhand state movement was the result of a long and arduous journey. As the movement intensified, the pressure on the Uttar Pradesh government and the central government to form a new state increased. The main reason for this pressure was the neglect of development in the Uttarakhand region and the expectations of the local residents.

Eventually, as a result of the pressure and continuous struggle, the Indian Parliament approved the division of the Uttar Pradesh State Assembly, and Uttarakhand was declared a separate state. On November 9, 2000, Uttarakhand officially became the 27th state of India.


The path to statehood for Uttarakhand was as challenging as it was historic. This movement is not just a story of the creation of a state, but it also symbolizes the victory of people’s power in Indian democracy. This struggle and its achievements testify to the courage and resolve of the people of Uttarakhand.

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